Appendix 1    

of Abbreviations and Acronyms

Automotive Consortium on Recycling and Disposal  

ACORN  Affiliated Cooking Oil Reclaimers Nationwide

AD  Anaerobic digestion: processing organic waste in the absence of oxygen

ARROW  Associated Reclaimers and Recyclers of Oil Waste

BATNEEC  Best Available Technique (or Technology) Not Entailing Excessive Cost

BOSCA British Oil Spill Control Association

BPEO  Best Practicable Environmental Option

BSE  Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

BST  Bovine Somatotropin synthetic growth hormone injected into cows to raise milk yields.

C & I   Commercial and Industrial 

CAP  Common Agricultural Policy

CC  County Council

CCA  Climate Change Agreement - an agreement between industry and DEFRA on energy efficiency

CCL  Climate Change Levy - a tax on the use of energy 

CFCs  Chlorofluorocarbons, a group of semi-inert gases derived from the hydrocarbons methane and ethane, which liquefy easily.   see sections 44,45

CHP  Combined Heat and Power - plant generating both heat and power (usually electricity) in a single process.

CJD  Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease

CO2  Carbon dioxide - produced by burning carbon, and absorbed by plants. The best known greenhouse gas, used as an international standard to gauge and reduce climate change. Greenhouse gases absorb and reflect infrared radiation from the sun, heating the earth's atmosphere.  The other principal greenhouse gases are water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and some halocarbons.

CRA  Chemical and Oil Recycling Association

CRI  Chemical Release Inventory

CVS  Council for Voluntary Service

DEFRA  Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs  see section 610

DfT  Department for Transport  see section 610

DTI  Department of Trade and Industry  see section 610

EA  Environment Agency - 'environment police' who check rivers, sea, beaches, air and soil to ensure they are free from pollution. They enforce laws and rules to stop pollution, and can take companies and individuals to court for breaking these laws. 

EC  European Community - made up of the majority of European countries, which have to follow mutual rules and work together.  All EC countries have to put an EC Directive (a law) into their own legal system.

EEDA  East of England Development Agency

EfW  Energy from waste - usually refers to incineration of waste, part of which can generate electricity.  There are concerns about health from emissions, about the concentrated toxic waste that remains after burning, and that reusable or recyclable materials may be diverted to incineration.

ELV   End-of-Life Vehicles

EMAS  Eco Management and Audit Scheme

EPA  The Environmental Protection Act 1990: a major piece of waste legislation, which has had subsequent additions and amendments. Also the US Environmental Protection Agency.

ESA  The Environmental Services Association

EU  European Union

FoE  Friends of the Earth

FSA   Food Standards Agency

FSC  Forestry Stewardship Council

GATT  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GM  Genetically Modified

HDPE   High Density Polyethylene  see section 420

HHW   Household Hazardous Waste

HWD    Hazardous Waste Directive

HWRC   Household Waste Recycling Centre

IAEA  International Atomic Energy Authority

ICER  Industry Council for Electronic and Electrical Equipment Recycling

INCPEN  Industry Council for Packaging and the Environment

IPCC   Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPPC  Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control

ISO  International Standards Organisation

LARAC  Local Authority Recycling Advisory Committee see section 160

Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme 

LAWDC   Local Authority Waste Disposal Company

LCA   Life Cycle Analysis

LDPE   Low Density Polyethylene  see section 420

LEAP  Local Environmental Action Plan (Environment Agency)

LGA   Local Government Association

LPG  Liquefied Petroleum Gas

LTCS   Landfill Tax Credit Scheme

MAFF  Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (now defunct)

MCA   Municipal Collection Authority

MRF  Materials Reclamation (or Recycling, or Recovery) Facility, where (usually dry) materials are sorted before delivery to recycling companies (reprocessors)

'Dirty MRF', a facility which tries to reclaim material from mixed solid waste.

MSW   Municipal Solid Waste

MWLP   Minerals and Waste Local Plan

NAMAS  National Measurement Accreditation Service

NGO  Non-Government Organisation 

NISP   National Industrial Symbiosis Programme  see section 610

NOx  Nitrogen oxides - produced when fuel is combusted and reacts with nitrogen.  Powerful greenhouse gas.

ODPM  Office of the Deputy Prime Minister

ORA   Oil Recycling Association  see section 61

OFWAT  Office of Water Services

PCB  Printed Circuit Board or Polychlorinated Biphenol

PAH  Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (see hydrocarbons)

PAMs  Trade acronym for 'periodicals and magazines': hence 'news and pams'.

PET   Polyethylene terephthalate  see section 420

PFI   Private Finance Initiative

PP   Polypropylene  see section 420

PPC  Pollution Prevention and Control - an EC Directive applicable to industry

PPG   Parliamentary Planning Guidance, or Planning Policy Guidance

PPP   Public Private Partnership

PRN   Packaging waste Recovery Note from a company that recycles (reprocesses) packaging, recording the weight of material recycled. Under Packaging Waste Regulations, companies (or compliance schemes) buy PRNs as evidence of recycling.

PS   Polystyrene  see section 420

PVC  Polyvinyl chloride

R & D  Research and Development

RAS  Radioactive Substances

RCEP   Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution

REMADE    Recycled Market Development

RIMNET  Radioactive Incident Monitoring Network

RDF   Refuse Derived Fuel

RoHS   Restricting the use of Hazardous Substances - EU directive controlling use of hazardous substances during manufacture.

RPG  Regional Planning Guidance 

RSA  Radioactive Substances Act

RTAB   Regional Technical Advisory Body (waste planning)

SEEDA  South East of England Development Agency

SERPLAN   South East Regional Planning Conference

SMEs Small to Medium Enterprises

SOSulphur dioxide, produced from sulphur in fuel during combustion.  Also produced naturally by volcanoes.  Contributes to acidification of lakes, sea and soil.

SSSI  Site of Special Scientific Interest - an area protected for biodiversity

SWQO  Statutory Water Quality Objective

UN  United Nations

VOCs  Volatile organic compounds - a special waste category. Contain carbon which evaporates easily. Involved in formation of ground level ozone and depletion of the ozone layer. Petroleum and most organic solvents are VOCs.

WCA  Waste Collection Authority

WDA  Waste Disposal Authority

WEEE   Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment - much delayed EU Directive controlling disposal and percentage going to landfill. 

World Health Organisation

WPA   Waste Planning Authority

WRAP  Waste Resources Action Programme  see section 50 and others

WTO  World Trade Organisation

Recommended  -  to help understand acronyms, jargon and technical phrases, mainly in the public sector

(Updated Sep 2005)